In 1820, the slave trade became a capital offensive, with an amendment to the 1819 law to protect U.S. trade and punish the crime of piracy. A total of 74 cases of slavery were brought in the United States between 1837 and 1860, "but few captains were convicted and they recovered insignificant sentences that they could normally avoid."  Nathaniel Gordon, hanged in 1862, was the only one executed for slave trafficking in the United States.  In addition, after the abolition of the slave trade in the United States in 1808, many Americans continued the slave trade by transporting Africans to Cuba. From 1808 to 1860, nearly one-third of all slave ships owned American merchants or were built and equipped in American ports.  It is possible that U.S. citizens "transported twice as many Africans to other countries such as Cuba and Brazil than to their own ports."  The first shipment of African prisoners in North America arrived in August 1619 at Jamestown, Virginia, but for most of the 17th century European servants were much more numerous in the British colonies of North America than African slaves. However, after 1680, the influx of immigrant servants declined sharply, causing an explosion in the African slave trade. By the mid-18th century, slavery was found in all 13 colonies and was the nucleus of the agricultural economy of the southern colonies.
At the time of the American Revolution, English importers alone had brought about three million captured Africans to America. After the war, when slavery was not an essential part of the northern economy, most northern states passed laws to abolish slavery. In the south, however, the invention of cotton gin in 1793 made cotton an important industry and increased the need for slavery. Tensions arose between the North and the South when discussing the status of slaves or the free status of new states. In January 1807, some members of the Southern Congress, with a freestanding population of more than four million slaves in the South, voted in favour of the abolition of the African slave trade, which came into force on 1 January 1808. However, the widespread trade in slaves in the South was not prohibited and the children of slaves were automatically enslaved, which ensured a self-seized population in the South. The Slave Import Prohibition Act of 1807 (Day 2, 426, enacted March 2, 1807) was a U.S. federal law that provided that no new slaves could be imported into the United States. It came into force on January 18, 1808, the earliest date authorized by the U.S. Constitution. The role of the navy has been extended to patrols off the coasts of Cuba and South America. The act came into force, January 1, 1808, was celebrated by Peter Williams Jr.
in "An Oration on the Abolition of the Slave Trade" in New York.  The House of Representatives and the Senate agreed on a bill, passed on March 2, 1807, called a law called the An Act, to prohibit the importation of slaves into a port or place within the jurisdiction of the United States, since and after the first day of January, the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and eight. The related measure also regulated the coastal slave trade. President Thomas Jefferson signed the Act on March 2, 1807.  Many in Congress thought that the act would derail slavery in the South, but they were wrong.  On March 22, 1794, Congress passed the Slave Trade Act of 1794, which prohibited the manufacture, loading, equipment, equipment or sending of ships for the slave trade, essentially limiting trade to foreign vessels.  On August 5, 1797, John Brown of Providence, Rhode Island, became the first American to be indicted in federal court under the 1794 Act.